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Reich 4.0

Ukraine, Part Three - Research

WWII took between five and eight million Ukrainians, including approximately 500,000 Jews, plus another approximate 1.4 million ethnic Ukrainians fighting with the Soviet army. Victory Day, therefore, is to this day, one of ten Ukrainian national holidays.

700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages were destroyed during WWII. There was a famine in 1946-47 caused by drought and lack of infrastructure.

In 1945, Ukraine was one of the founders of the United Nations. The first Soviet computer, MESM, was built at Kiev Institute of Electrotechnology and became operational in 1950.

20% of the people Stalin “deported” to Gulags and labor camps were Ukrainians, as of January 1, 1953.

By 1950, Ukraine surpassed pre-war industry and production levels, due to Soviet investment, of 20% of their 5 year plan budget, and Ukraine became a European leader in industrial production, as well as a center for the Soviet arms industry and high-tech research. This, in turn, led to Ukrainian elites making their way into Soviet leadership, most notably, Leonid Brezhnev, who ruled the USSR from 1964 to 82.

1986 saw the Chernobyl disaster. At the time of the disaster,7 million people lived in the contaminated territories; 2.2 million of them in the Ukraine.

After the disaster, a new city, Slavutych, was built to house the employees of Chernobyl. Slavutych is on the left bank of the Dnieper River, 45k from Pripyat and 200k from Kiev. Building started in 1986 and the first inhabitants moved in in 1988.

In 1990, Ukraine became independent from USSR with the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. From 1991 to 1999, Ukraine lost 60 percent of its GDP and suffered five-digit inflation. A new currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in 1996. Since 2000, the Ukraine has enjoyed an average of 7% economic growth annually. Conflicts with Russia over natural gas prices stopped all gas supplies to the Ukraine in 2006 and 2009.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine had the world’s third largest nuclear arsenal; however, they gave up their weapons to the Soviets and by 1996, had become a nuclear weapons free zone. Currently, Ukraine’s military is the 2nd largest in Europe, after Russia. Their current conscript-based military is to be converted to a volunteer military by 2011. The Ukraine is increasingly active in peacekeeping activities.

Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe. Landscape is mostly fertile plains crossed by rivers flowing into the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The Danube is to the southwest. The Carpathian Mountains to the west and the Crimean peninsula to the south, along the coast.

Average annual temperatures are from 5.5 to 7 degrees C in the north and 11 to 13 degrees C in the south.

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